Volcanology is the study of volcanoes, magma, lava, and their related geochemical, geological and geophysical phenomena. The person who is interested in this study is known as volcanologist and focuses on the activity and formation of volcanoes, as well as their current and historic eruptions.
During their analysis, volcanologists visit volcanoes to observe their eruption, collecting elements such as tephra, rocks and lava samples and predict future volcanic explosions.
The first volcanology observatory was founded in 1841 in the Kingdom of the two Sicilies. Since then, volcanology observations have become popular and made adopting different tools including seismographs to measure the motion of the ground, thermometers to monitor gas emissions and temperature changes, and satellites to measure the spread of ash plumes, as well as SO2 emissions.
Seismology is the science which studies the earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. The field includes also studies related to earthquakes environmental effects such as tsunamis, as well as diverse systemic sources.
There are two types of seismic waves which are analysed by seismology: body waves and surface waves.
Body waves consist of Pressure waves (primary waves) and Shear waves (secondary waves). Primary waves are longitudinal waves, which expand in the same direction of the propagation and are the firsts which appear on a seismogram. Secondary waves are transverse waves which move perpendicular to the direction of the propagation.
Surface waves include Rayleigh waves and Love waves. Rayleigh waves are the result of the vertical interaction between Pressure and Shear waves. Love waves are those which exist in presence of a surface and are created by horizontally polarized Shear waves.
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