Urology is a branch of medicine which focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system, as well as the male reproductive organs. The discipline examines several organs including kidneys, urethra, urinary bladder, adrenal glands, and ureters.
As the urinary and reproductive tracts are close, most of the time, disorders of one affect the other. Therefore, a broader spectrum of the conditions managed by the discipline exists under the domain of genitourinary disorders. These include urinary tract infections, prostate cancer, kidney stones and stress incontinence.
Urology techniques usually include minimally invasive robotic and laparoscopic surgery.
Furthermore, urology involves the care of different organs and physiological systems. Therefore, it can be divided into several sub-disciplines which include endourology, laparoscopy, neurology, urologic oncology, andrology, paediatric urology, reconstructive urology and female urology.
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