Surgery is a vastly complex area of study, with not only in-depth knowledge needed of the human anatomy but also of surgical equipment and how and when to use it. Below are some basic techniques when using the equipment.
The conventional scalpel is the most general of surgical equipment. There are two ways to use a scalpel. One is the fiddlestick handling used by long, straight incisions, where the handle is positioned horizontally and is held between the first and third finger.
It is held upside by the second finger while the fourth and fifth finger is encompassing the remnant part of the handle. The second type of handling is a pencil style grip.
When using the scalpel to cut the skin, one must plan the length that is to be cut and tensed with the opposite hand that is not doing the cutting.
The curved sharp/sharp scissor is used for cutting and dissecting tissue. The scissors must be put in the tissue closed end, and then they must be opened dissecting the tissues dull. An assistant must elevate the skin using a wound retractor.
The fine, curved, sharp/sharp scissor is used for cutting and dissecting and so is the fine, angular curved straight sharp/sharp scissor. The lister’s bandage scissor is angularly curved and one of the blades is longer than the other with a dull end so to avoid cutting the patient’s skin during the removal of a bandage.
The instruments Kocher, Péan, Mosquito and Lumnitzer are used for tissue dissection, grabbing and haemostasis. The Kocher is used for grabbing strong tissues but not for dissection because of its teeth. The Péan has no teeth and is suitable for dissection, atraumatic grabbing of tissues and haemostasis. The Mosquito is smaller than the Péan and is used for fine preparation, for grabbing smaller particles and stopping small amounts of bleeding. The Lumnitzer is suitable for grabbing big tissues or sponges and due to its teeth, the elevation of tissues can be performed using it.
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