Surgery is a medical discipline which uses operative and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or treat diseases and injuries, as well as to improve the body functions or areas.
The act of doing surgery is known as 'operation' or 'surgical procedure' and the person who is practising surgery is known as 'surgeon'. Usually, a surgical team involves a surgeon, a surgeon's assistant, an anaesthesia provider, a circulating nurse and a surgical technologist.
A procedure is considered surgical when the patient’s tissues are cut or closed after a wound. Currently, there are different types of surgery which differ for their urgency, the type of procedure adopted, their degree of invasiveness, the body system involved and the special instrumentation used.
Surgical procedure takes place in hospitals, where the patient stays at least one night after his/her operation. At the hospital, the surgery is performed in an operating theatre, using specific surgical instruments, an operating table and other types of equipment.
Surgery dates back to the prehistoric era; however, until the industrial revolution, surgeons were unable to deal with bleedings, pains and infections. In the modern time, with the developments in these fields, surgery has transited from a risky ‘art’ to a scientific discipline, able to treat various diseases and conditions.
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