Signal processing includes the analysis of signals to extract useful information. Signals are processed by systems which can be natural, electronic, mechanical or computing systems. In the digital world, the signal processing is done by a digital hardware or a digital computer.
The origins of signal processing can be related to the development of the classical numerical analysis techniques of the 17th century. Instead, the digital refinements of this discipline are related to the development of the digital control system in the 1940s and 1950s.
Signal processing can be applied to different fields which are audio signal processing, digital signal processing, speech signal processing, image processing, video processing, wireless communications, control systems, array processing, process control, seismology, financial signal processing, feature extraction, and genomics.
As well as this, signal processing can be divided into five different categories: analogue signal processing, continuous-time signal processing, discrete-time signal processing, digital signal processing and non-linear signal processing.
Firstly, analogue signal processing analyses signals which have not been digitised and are generated by radio, telephone, radar or television systems.
Secondly, continuous-time signal processing focuses on signals that vary with the change of continuous domain.
Thirdly, discrete- time signal processing relates to sampled signals defined at a specific time.
Fourthly, digital signal processing concentrates on digitised signals produced by computers or digital circuits.
Finally, nonlinear signal processes involve the analysis of signals which are produced by non-linear systems. These signals are complex and they cannot be analysed by using linear methods.
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