The term ‘psychology of gender’ relates a branch of psychology which focuses on the differences between females and males. These variations have been noticed in different individual aspects such as personality, mental health, a tendency towards aggression and cognitive abilities. These differences may be innate or learned; however, this distinction is difficult to be noticed. Modern research focuses on these differences and tries to analyse any ethical concerns raised. The psychological research focuses on the differentiation of psychological traits such as emotion, motivation, cognition and sexuality.
The origin of this distinction relates to the book ‘On the origin of species’ by Charles Darwin, as the author asserts that psychological traits evolve through the process of sexual selection.
The main traits considered and analysed by the psychology of gender include intelligence, memory, aggression, empathy, personal traits, emotion and mental health.
Considering the first aspect, it can be said that different have been the tests done considering the intelligence level on female and males. Research shows that males have a small advantage in this aspect during the early stages of their life, but women have some advantage in later life.
Regarding the memory, the results of the psychological research show that there is no difference between males and females in the capacity of memorising events. Nevertheless, females have an advantage in recalling auditory and olfactory stimuli, faces and names.
Considering the concept of aggression, psychological research outlines that men are generally more likely to show aggressive behaviours rather than females. On the contrary, women show better their emotions and empathy compared to men.
Also the male and females personal traits are different. Indeed, the most common personality traits for women are high neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to feeling and warmth; on the other side, men show a higher assertiveness and openness to ideas.
Finally, considering the concept of mental health, studies outlined that many moods, anxiety and eating disorders are associated with women as they are not used to externalise their stress.
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