Printing is defined as the process which reproduces images and texts using templates. Printmaking instead is a fine art and is the action of originating artworks by printing, usually on paper.
The process of printmaking consists of creating prints which are unique and original. Prints are originated by transferring the ink from the matrix to a sheet of paper or other materials. Different are the matrices that can be used in the printing process. These could be metal plates, polymer plates, stone, aluminium, a block of wood or linoleum.
Printmaking methods are usually categorised in relief technique, intaglio technique, planographic technique and stencil technique. The relief method consists of applying the ink to the original surface of the matrix. This is different from the intaglio methodology, where the ink is spread beneath the original surface of the matrix. In the planographic technique, the matrix absorbs its original surface. Finally, in the stencil technique, the ink or paint is pressed through a screen.
Other types of printmaking techniques include collagraphy and viscosity printing. As well as this, in modern time, also digital printing has become popular.
Printmaking was firstly introduced by the Chinese art; however, this art became an established fine art during the German Renaissance (1430-1580), with the invention of the screw printing press by Johann Gutenberg.
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