The term ‘political party’ refers to a group of people who come together to contest the elections and have power in government. Political parties usually agree on programmes and policies with the aim to promote the collective good or support different interests.
In an international context, political parties usually have similarities in how they are operating. Nevertheless, among them, there are significant differences. Firstly, many political parties have an ideological core; however, there are some political parties which do not have it and represent their principles in a very different way. Secondly, countries such as Germany and India have several significant political parties; on the contrary, nations such as a China and Cuba have a one-party system, as well as the US, has a two-party system.
The first political party emerged in the late 17th century during the Exclusion Crisis and the Glorious Revolution. However, the spread of political parties across Europe has started in the second half of the 19th century.
A political party is usually led by a party leader who collaborates with a party secretary, a party treasurer and a party chair. However, this structure can change from nation to nation. For example, in the US this structure is more decentralized due to the powers’ separation.
In parliamentary democracies, political parties tend to have party conferences on a regular and periodic base, held to elect party officers.
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