Physical geography is a branch of geography and natural sciences which focuses on the processes and aspects of the natural environment such as the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere.
Physical geography includes different subfields which are geomorphology, hydrology, glaciology, biogeography, climatology, meteorology, pedology, palaeogeography, coastal geography, oceanography, quaternary science, landscape ecology, geomatics, and environmental geography.
Geomorphology is the study of the surface of the planet Earth and the processes who have created it over the years. The discipline tries to understand the history and dynamics of the land and predict future changes.
Hydrology focuses on the amounts and quality of the planet's water. The field studies the water of rivers, lakes, aquifers and glaciers, outlining the dynamics involved in these natural items. Although hydrology focuses also on glaciers, glaciology is the discipline which studies these natural items and ice sheets.
Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species in the ecosystems over the time. The discipline focuses on how organisms and communities have varied over the years.
Climatology examines the climate, which consists of the weather conditions averaged over a long period of time. Climatology focuses on both the nature and aspects of micro and macro climates.
Meteorology concentrates on the atmosphere, the weather processes and short-term forecasting.
Pedology is a discipline which focuses on soils and deals with pedogenesis, soil morphology and soil classification.
Palaeogeography examines preserved materials to determine the distribution of the continents over the geologic time.
Coastal geography focuses on the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land. It incorporates both the physical geography and the human geography of the coast. It concentrates above all on the wave action, sediment movement and humans interactions with the coast.
Oceanography is the study of the oceans and seas. The discipline includes disciplines such as biological oceanography, physical oceanography, geological oceanography and chemical oceanography.
Quaternary science focuses on the Quaternary period and how the environment has changed in the last 2.6 Million years.
Landscape ecology is a sub-area of ecology and geography and focuses on how the spatial variation of the landscape influences ecological processes such as the distribution of materials and individual in the environment.
Geomatics is the area which gathers, stores, processes and delivers geographic information.
Finally, environmental geography analyses the spatial aspects of the intercommunication between individuals and their natural environment.
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