Philosophy is the study of general problems which are related to the humans' existence, knowledge, value, reasons, mind and language.
Philosophical methods consist of questioning, critical discussion, rational argument and systematic presentation.
Traditionally the term philosophy was related to any body of knowledge. Therefore, the discipline was closely related to subjects such as religion, mathematics, natural science, education and politics. During the classical antiquity period, the discipline was divided into three main branches: natural philosophy, moral philosophy and metaphysical philosophy. Natural philosophy was the study of the physical world; moral philosophy was the study of the right and wrong, as well as the justice and virtue; metaphysical philosophy was the study of the existence, God and other abstract objects.
Over the years, natural philosophy has started to be related to natural sciences such as astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and cosmology; moral philosophy has been linked to the social sciences; and metaphysical philosophy has originated the formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science.
Philosophy is divided into five main branches which are metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics and aesthetics.
Metaphysics is the study of existence. This discipline is at the base of philosophy as, without an interpretation of the world, people wouldn’t be able to deal with the reality.
Epistemology is the study of how people acquire the knowledge. It outlines the nature of concepts, their constructions, the validity of the senses, and the logical reasoning. As well as this, it focuses on humans' thoughts, ideas, memories and emotions.
Ethics is the study of action and focuses on humans' endeavours. This discipline is at the base of the human life as it is the mean people adapt to decide a curse of actions. Without ethics, every action would be random and without a goal.
Politics is the branch of philosophy which focuses on the force. The discipline outlines how a society must be set up and how people should act within it.
Finally, esthetics is the study of art and outlines what is art and its purposes. Art can be defined as a unique item for humans because of their unique form of thinking.
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