Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry which focuses on the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds and materials. The study of the substance structure determines its chemical composition and formula. Instead, the examination of the properties determines the physical and chemical characteristics of the substance as well as evaluate its chemical reactivity.
Chemical substances which are studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons as well as compounds based on carbons and including other elements, such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, the halogens and phosphorus.
In the modern time, the range of analysed subjects has expanded into the periodic table, which includes organometallic compounds and metalloids.
As organic compounds usually exit as mixtures, different are the techniques used to analyse them including HPLC and gas chromatography.
The physical properties of organic compounds include both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Quantitative information includes boiling point, melting point and index of refraction. Qualitative features include odour, consistency, colour and solubility.
The names of organic compounds can be either systematic which follow a logical set of rules, or non-systematic which follows different traditions.
Finally, organic compounds can be classified in different groups including aliphatic compounds, aromatic compounds, heterocyclic compounds, polymers, biomolecules, and fullerenes.
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