Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery which focuses on the anatomy, diseases and physiology of the eyeball and orbit. Physicians who are specialised in this discipline are known as ophthalmologists and have to own a doctorate degree in medicine as well as a specialisation to work in this field.
Ophthalmologists usually treat different diseases including cataract, molecular degeneration, dry eyes, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, strabismus, proptosis, excessive tearing, uveitis, eye tumours and refractive surgery.
The diagnosis of these diseases could be done through an eye examination process or specialised tests. Usually, eye examinations include a check of the visual acuity, a refraction analysis, an intraocular pressure analysis and a retinal examination. Instead, specialised tests consist of optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography and ultrasonography.
As well as this, ophthalmologists practice eye surgery. As the eye is a very fragile organ, these physicians must select the appropriate surgical procedure for the patient and take the necessary safety precautions.
The origins of this discipline relate to the ancient Greek; however, the discipline has become prominent during the late 19th century.
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