Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) consists of a programming paradigm focused on objects, which contain both data in the form of fields, often known as attributes and code in the form of procedures, often known as methods.
Different languages support OOP. The most popular ones are class-based languages; however, also multi-paradigm programming languages are used to support OOP.
OOP languages are currently used by back-end developers to write software and database technology. Websites built with this paradigm consider data as objects. This affects the way data is organised and the maintenance of the website.
By adopting an OOP language, the developer will have different advantages such as an easier way to design a software, an increased productivity, and an easier testing, debugging and maintenance process. As well as this, there will be more data analysis and accurate coding, data will be more secure thanks to the hiding and abstraction process and classes will be reusable and shareable with other areas of the program.
In Object-Oriented Programming, objects are vital, and they originate from classes which are blueprints for objects. From here, you also have abstract classes, encapsulation and importantly, inheritance of classes.
The term object indicates the core unit of OOP and they are uniquely named and represent an instance of a class. Objects can have different attributes and behaviour due to its methods.
Inheritance is an aspect of OOP which is similar to natural science, where a child-class inherits from its parent class (e.g. a Dog class inherits from a Mammal class).
Finally, abstraction & encapsulation describe how attributes are hidden within an object, including data.
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