Neurology is concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and management of disorders that affect the central nervous system (such as the brain and the spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system (such as the nerves and muscles which activate movement and transmit sensation from the body to the brain).
A neurologist will treat any disease or malfunction of the body’s systems that affects the neurological function. For example, high blood pressure is a cardiovascular problem, but if it causes a stroke, the problem will become a neurological one, too. They’ll also treat meningitis due to the threat of brain damage and complications like epilepsy.
The diagnosis of patients with neurological problems is done through clinical assessment, although there may be some cases where further investigation is needed, such as blood tests, CT or MRI scans and electrical tests which measure nerve and muscle function.
Neurophysiology is a combination of neurology and physiology and it studies the functioning of the nervous system. Clinical neurophysiology studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity – spontaneous or stimulated.
Tests that are conducted within the realm of clinical neurophysiology are used to measure the electrical functions of the brain, spinal cord and the nerves in the limbs and muscles. The tests can give a precise definition of the site, the type and degree of the lesion, along with revealing any abnormalities that were in question from the start.
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