Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes both atmospheric physics and atmospheric chemistry and focuses on the weather forecasts. The origins of this science date back thousands of years, although important innovations in meteorology have been developed only in the 18th century. In the 19th century, there have been significant developments in the field with the formation of weather observation networks across wide regions. As well as this, in the 20th and 21st century, with the development of computers, new automated solutions have been introduced in meteorology.
Meteorological phenomena are events which can be observed and are explained by the science of meteorology. These phenomena are described and measured by using the variables of the Earth’s atmosphere: temperature, water vapour, air pressure and mass flow.
People who focus on this science are known as meteorologists and they have the main aim to outline the weather forecasts.
Climatology, known also as climate science, is the science which focuses on the climate, which is defined as the weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This science belongs to the atmospheric sciences and is a subfield of physical geography. Currently, climatology includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry.
Furthermore, this science can be approached in different ways including palaeoclimatology, paleotempestology and historical climatology. Palaeoclimatology tries to reconstruct past climates by analysing records such as ice cores and tree rings. Paleotempestology utilises the same records to determine the occurrence of hurricanes over millennia. Historical climatology is the study of the clime in relation with the human history.
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