Literacy is the capacity to read and write as well the ability to use a language, numbers, images, computers to gain knowledge and solve issues.
At the base of literacy, there are reading and writing, which are skills that permit people to understand spoken and written words, and consequently the whole text. The reading process includes different aspects such as understanding the speech sound, spelling the words in a right way, knowing the meaning of the terms and understanding the grammar of a language. Once a person has acquired all these skills, he/she can start to analyse as well as understand a language.
Since the 1950s, literacy has started being spread all around the world. However, there are differences and disparities from regions to regions. Europe, North America, West Asia and Central Asia are currently having almost a full adult literacy for both men and women. On the contrary, countries in South Asia, North Africa and Sub-Sarah Africa still have a lack of this competency.
Teaching how to read and write has become a very important task for educators as literacy has a socioeconomic and health impact as well as economic consequences.
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