Linguistics is defined as the scientific study of a language. The discipline consists of the analysis of the language form, meaning context and sounds and it is divided into six sub-categories. These are phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics.
Phonetics is the branch of linguistics that concentrates on the sounds of humans speech and focuses on the linguistics signs, known as phones. This category is also divided into three areas of study: articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics and auditory phonetics.
Phonology is a linguistic branch which concentrates on the relationship among signs (phones) that are the fundamental components of a language.
Morphology focuses on the study of the words, their creation and relationships to other words of the same language. It analyses the words’ structure and their parts such as stems, prefixes and suffixes. Additionally, this branch deals with intonation and stress.
The syntax consists of a set of rules, principles and processes which manage the structure of sentences in a language and the word order.
Semantics is a linguistic branch which focuses on the study of the sentences' meaning which is the result of the relationship among words.
Finally, pragmatics is the linguistics branch that concentrates on the way in which the context influence the meaning of a sentence. Contrary to semantics which focuses on the meaning originated from the relationship among words, pragmatic focus on how the message of a sentence depends on the context and person knowledge.
Linguistics also concentrates on social, political and cultural factors which affect a language. As well as this, it focuses on how language change and grow over the years.
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