Jurisdiction is the power or right of a legal or political entity to adopt its authority over a person or territory.
Jurisdiction can be both general or specific. Specific jurisdiction exists when a state is supposed to have jurisdiction over a defendant as the defendant’s actions in that state gave rise to claim. In specific jurisdiction the defendant's contacts with the forum states are limited; however, the claim must arise out of these contacts.
In specific jurisdiction, the number of contacts is a matter as the court will hear the case if the claim is arisen by a minimum number of contacts. This number is usually established by consent where a party sign a contract with a forum selection clause, recognising to dispute in a specific forum.
Specific jurisdiction in the English law has its origins related to the idea that the monarch can use its power over a person or property which is located outside of the nation. However, over the years, the court created another type of jurisdiction over the land where the monarch could use his power over a land that was not in the nation.
Nowadays, specific jurisdiction is applied also in the United States. To exercise this type of jurisdiction, a court must be compliant with the Constitutional limitations and be recognised by a statute. Instead, in the United Kingdom, a court does not need a statutory basis to exercise jurisdiction as the UK doesn’t have a written constitution.
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