Language is a system of communication which includes a set of sounds and written symbols, that only humans can use. Language is adopted by people of different countries and communities to communicate in an oral and written way. It has been estimated that there are between 5,000 and 7,000 languages in the world including dialects.
In society, people communicate by using both linguistic and non-linguistic communication. Linguistic communication uses words to create a relationship among individuals. Non-linguistic communication happens without words (e.g. through the use of gestures).
The scientific study of a language is called linguistics and it has been studied by different philosophers such as Rousseau and Kant.
Linguistics involves the analysis of the language form, meaning context and sound. Linguistics is composed of six sub-areas which are phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics.
Firstly, phonetics is the branch of linguistics that focuses on the sounds of humans speech and it is focused on the linguistics signs, called phones. This branch is usually divided into three areas of study: articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics and auditory phonetics. On the other side, phonology focuses on the relationship among signs (phones) which constitute the fundamental components of a language.
Secondly, morphology is the study of the words, their creation and relationships to other words of the same language and it analyses the structure of words and their parts such as stems, prefixes and suffixes. As well as this, it deals with intonation and stress.
Thirdly, the syntax is a set of rules, principles and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a language and the word order. On the other hand, semantics is the study of the sentence meaning which is the result of the relationship among words.
Finally, pragmatics is the linguistics branch that studies the way in which the context influence the meaning of a sentence. Unlike semantics which examines only the meaning created by the relationship among words, pragmatic focus on how the meaning of a sentence depends on the context and person knowledge.
Linguistics also focuses on social, political and cultural factors that influence a language. As well as this, it focuses on how language change and grow over a period of time.
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