Landscape art, known also as landscape painting, is the reproduction of landscapes in art. Usually, landscape art includes elements such as mountains, valleys, forests, rivers, and trees. As well as this, the sky and weather are almost always included in the painting.
Although ancient paintings portrayed natural elements, landscape art, as an independent genre, emerged in the Western culture during the Renaissance period. Nevertheless, in the Eastern tradition, landscape art date back to the 4th Century.
In the Western culture, the first landscape painting dates back to the 15th century with the artworks of Giovanni Bellini and Giorgione. In the 16th century, artists from the North of Europe started portraying landscapes with religious and biblical figures. During the 17th century, landscapes paintings represented scenes of the mystic and idyllic Arcadia of ancient Greece. These forms of art related to metaphorical meanings and were emphasizing the power of nature over the individuals. In the 19th century, landscape artists started embracing the Romantic movement and inserting details of passion and drama in their paintings. As well as this, over this century, landscape art became a respectable genre within the academies of Europe, as well as relevant in the United States. At the end of the 19th century, the Impressionists moved away from the romanticism influence and started representing landscapes in a realistic way. Finally, in the 20th century, landscape artists focused on a non-traditional view of this art, producing abstract landscapes.
The term ‘landscape architecture’ relates to the designing process of outdoors areas and structures which aim to have environmental, social-behavioural and aesthetic results. The discipline also consists of analysing the existing social, ecological and soil conditions, and include disciplines such as botany, horticulture, the fine arts, industrial design, soil science, architecture, geography and ecology.
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