Landscape archaeology is a discipline which analyses how people in the past have used the environment around them. The study of this discipline has evolved over the time and, currently, it includes the study of how landscapes have been used to create and reinforce the social inequality, as well as enhance the social status of a specific community.
The term landscape refers to both natural and human-made environments. Natural landscapes are those environments which have not be changed by humans. On the contrary cultural landscapes are those environments which have been altered by individuals. Among archaeologists, the term ‘landscape’ refers to the alterations which people have made on an environment and its surroundings.
There are different methodologies which archaeologists adopt to analyse the environment, including the pollen analysis, the soil sampling, the faunal analysis, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the ground penetrating radar and the archaeological excavation methods. The pollen, faunal and soil analysis permits archaeologists to understand the natural vegetation of an area, including both flora and fauna. Instead, technologies, such as GIS, allow archaeologists to analyse a wide area in a quicker and more precise way.
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