The term ‘history of mathematics’ refers to an area of study which focuses on the origins of mathematics, as well as the mathematical methods and notation of the past. From 3000 BC, different Mesopotamian states including Sumer, Akkad and Assyria started using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for commercial purposes. Also, these nations began using mathematics to formulate calendar and record time.
The oldest mathematical texts come from Mesopotamia and Egypt and are the Plimpton 322, the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus. These three texts are known as Pythagorean triples; therefore, the Pythagorean theorem is considered the most ancient mathematical development after the basic arithmetic and geometry.
The study of mathematics as a demonstrative subject started in the 6th century BC when the Pythagoreans created the term mathematics which means ‘subject of instruction’. Over the years, Greek mathematics deepened the concept and improved the mathematical methods. Also, the ancient Romans started adopting applied mathematics in surveys, mechanical engineering, structural engineering, and bookkeeping. In addition, Chinese mathematics and Islamic mathematics contributed to the development of this subject. Indeed, Chinese mathematics introduced and first used the concept of negative numbers. Instead, Islamic mathematics expanded the discipline to different societies.
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