Gene therapy is that medical process which delivers a nuclear acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat a disease. The first attempt of this process has happened in 1980 by Martin Cline; however, the first successful nuclear gene transfer was performed in 1989.
Not all the medical processes which introduce an alteration of the patient’s genetic markup is considered gene therapy.
Gene therapy is usually classified into two types: somatic and germline. Somatic gene therapy consists of transmitting therapeutic genes into any cells except a gamete germ cell, gametocyte and undifferentiated stem cell. On the contrary, in the germline therapy process, germ cells are modified due to the introduction of functional genes within their genomes.
Gene therapy has its related problems including its costs, multigene disorder, problems with viral vectors, immune response ad insertional mutagenesis.
Also, the process can be used for speculative uses such as gene doping in sports or human genetic engineering. Here, genes therapy is able to change the individual physical appearance, metabolism and improve the physical and mental capabilities such as memory and intelligence.
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