Functional programming belongs to computer science and consists of a programming paradigm. A programming paradigm is a style utilised to build the structure and elements of computer programs by considering mathematical functions, as well as avoiding changing-state and mutable data. Functional programming is a declarative programming paradigm, meaning that the programming process is done by using expressions or declarations rather than statements.
The origins of functional programming relate to the lambda calculus, a formal system originated in the 1930s and used to analyse computability, function application, function definition and recursion. Nowadays, many languages in functional programming are usually considered as an elaboration on the lambda calculus.
Functional programming owns different concepts and principles which are different from the ones which belong to imperative programming. Firstly, functional programming deals with first-class, higher-order and pure functions; secondly, functional languages are usually accomplished via recursion and can have both a strict and non-strict evaluation; thirdly, functional programs do not have assignment statements, so as the variable in a functional program cannot change.
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