The concept of environmental management and sustainability consists of managing the oceans, freshwater systems, land and atmosphere, considering the sustainability principles.
Firstly, managing the oceans is vital as the ocean circulation patterns strongly influence the climate and the weather. These two aspects are also strictly related to the food supply of both humans and organisms.
Secondly, the preservation of freshwater has become an important aspect of environmental management during the 20th century as more than half the world’s wetlands have been lost. This decline is still continuing and freshwater ecosystems are disappearing faster than marine or land ecosystems.
Thirdly, the discipline looks after lands as most of them are nowadays overused by men who have started building infrastructures and affect negatively both the natural and human systems.
As well as this, environmental management has to look after the atmosphere. Nowadays, a relevant problem is air pollution where pollutants generate photochemical smog and acid rain.
Currently, the modern environmental movement has tried to consider these aspects and solve different problems. However, little progress has been made and there has not been enough effort invested in the climate change problem.
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