Crystallography is the science which determines the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids. Crystallography has become important over the years and in 2012 the United Nations proclaimed that 2014 would be the International Year of Crystallography.
X-Ray crystallography is a type of crystallography which is used to determine the structure of large biomolecules, such as protein. Before the introduction of this discipline, crystallography focused on the geometry of the crystals.
There are different materials which are analysed by the discipline including proteins which do not occur naturally as crystals. Therefore, these molecules are put in a solution and crystalised. Once the crystal is obtained, the substance can be analysed through the use of radiations.
Crystallography is used by scientists to study different materials. Many materials do not have only a single crystal structure but they have a poly-crystal form.
As well as this, the discipline is used in biology to study the DNA and RNA.
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