The term ‘cognitive science’ refers to the discipline which focuses on the mind and its processes. The subject also concentrates on the individuals’ intelligence and considers other disciplines such as philosophy, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, anthropology and linguistics. The origins of this discipline date back to the mid-1950s when researchers started to create theories of mind, focused on complex representations and computational procedures. In the 1970s the Cognitive Science Society was founded and the discipline started spreading its importance through the journal Cognitive Science. Since then, different universities across Europe, Asia, Australia and North Aerica have begun offering Cognitive Science programs.
Cognitive science as a discipline focuses on different topics such as artificial intelligence, attention, knowledge and processing of languages, learning and development, perception and action, memory and consciousness.
Furthermore, the discipline uses various methodologies which are related to fields such as psychology, neuroscience, system theory and computer science. The main methods used by cognitive science are brain imaging which analyses the activity of the brain while performing specific tasks; behavioural experiments which outlines the behavioural responses to different stimuli; computational modelling which shows problems with a mathematical and logical structure; neurobiological methods including single-unit recording, direct brain stimulation, postmortem studies and animal models.
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