The term ‘cognition’ refers to the mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding information through thoughts, experiences and the five senses. The concept refers to processes such as the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, reasoning and computation, problem-solving and decision making, comprehension and production of languages.
Cognition is analysed in different contexts and by different disciplines including linguistics, psychiatry, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, education, biology, anthropology, logic and computer science.
There is a branch of psychology which focuses on the concept of cognition and this is known as cognitive psychology.
Cognitive psychology is defined as the study of mental processes including language use, attention, problem solving, creativity, memory, perception and thinking. Most of the research in this field is associated with other modern disciplines such as educational psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology and economics.
As stated above, cognitive philosophy focuses on mental processes such as attention, memory, perception, language and metacognition.
Firstly, attention is defined as a state of awareness of different information. The main function of attention is to filter the information and identify irrelevant data, so as relevant information can be used for other mental processes.
Secondly, memory is a mental process which is distinguished in short-term memory and long-term memory. Short-term memory refers to the capacity to remember information in a context of distractions. Long-term memory, instead, can be a procedural memory, a semantic memory or an episodic memory. Procedural memory is the capacity to remember a performance or a particular action. Semantic memory is the capacity to remember knowledge. Episodic memory consists of remembering autobiographical events.
Thirdly, perceptions involve both physical and cognition processes. It refers to the capacity that people have to undersend the world around them through the interpretation of stimuli.
Fourthly, cognitive psychologists focus on the acquisition of a language and how the language is composed and influences the individuals’ mood. In this field, numerous researches have been done around the process of acquiring a language by children and the risks of developing a learning disability.
Finally, this discipline considered the metacognition aspect. This is defined as the thoughts an individual has about his/her own thoughts.
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