Cellular biology is a branch of biology which focuses on the structure and function of the cell- the basic unit of life. The discipline focuses on the cell physiological properties, metabolic processes, life cycle, chemical composition and interaction with the environment.
Knowing and understanding how the cell works and its components are at the base of all the biological sciences, as well as research in biomedical fields such as cancer and other diseases. Furthermore, research in this subject is related to genetics, biochemistry, immunology, molecular biology and cytochemistry.
Cells were first seen and analysed in the 17th century with the development of the compound microscope.
Cells can be classified into two groups: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The main difference between the two is the presence or absence of organelles. As well as this, they differ from their size and the way in which they reproduce.
Eukaryotic cells include plants, animals, fungi and protozoa cells which have a nucleus within a membrane. Prokaryotic cells, instead, lack of an enclosed nucleus and include a bacteria and archaea. Furthermore, prokaryotic cells are smaller than the eukaryotic ones.
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