Biogeography is the study of the distribution of ecosystems and species in the geographic space over a geological time. Species and biological communities differ according to geographic gradients such as latitude, isolation, elevation and habitat area. Biogeography includes two branches Phytogeography and Zoogeography. Phytogeography focuses on the distribution of the plants. Zoogeography concentrates on the distribution of animals.
As well as this, this science is a field which combines and takes information from ecology, geology, evolutionary biology and physical geography. Furthermore, the science focuses on essential concepts such as allopatric specialisations, extinction, evolution, dispersal, endemic areas, range and distribution, vicariance and geo dispersal.
The first discoveries that have permitted the development of biogeology date back to the mid-18th century, when Europeans started exploring the world and discovering the biodiversity of life. In the 19th century, scientists collaborate in the growth of this science by adding new theories. The most famous contributor is Charles Lyell, who worked and developed the ‘Theory of Uniformitarianism’ from a fossils analysis. Also, the 20th century has been an important era for biogeography. Indeed in 1912, Alfred Wegener introduced the ‘Theory of Continental Drift’.
Nowadays, biogeography incorporates different fields and focuses on both the environmental and human factors which influence the distribution of the species in different areas.
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