The term 'art techniques' refers to the basic methodologies to create an artistic work. The most common art techniques are drawing, painting, paper craft, sculpture, printmaking and digital art techniques.
Drawing refers to the skill of using lines and shapes to create an aesthetic composition which has depth, contrast, light and shadow that create the effect of dimension. The most common support for this technique is paper; nevertheless, other materials such as plastic, leather and canvas are used as well.
Painting is the technique to apply paint, colour and pigment on a solid surface by using brushes, knives or sponges. The discipline includes different elements such as colour and tone, non-traditional elements and rhythm.
Papercraft consists of creating artworks by the use of paper or card. In addition to its aesthetic value, papercraft is usually adopted in the education sector, as it is a cheap medium which permits to create 3D artworks.
Sculpture is the art technique which operates in three dimensions. It belongs to plastic art and adopts different materials to create the artwork. Traditionally, sculpture related to religion or political aspects of society.
Printmaking is an art technique which originates artworks through the printing process. The main goal of printmaking is creating a unique masterpiece rather than originate copies of the same piece.
Digital art is another technique which has become popular with digital development. It consists of creating artwork by using technology. Since the 70s the discipline has been labelled as computer art or multimedia art.
Art principles refer to the ways the artist uses the artistic elements such as lines, shapes, values, forms, textures and spaces. The art principles are balance, contrast, emphasis, movement, pattern, rhythm and unity.
Balance refers to the visual weight of the elements of the artwork. This principle can be achieved by using symmetry, asymmetry and radial symmetry. Contrast is the difference between the composition elements. Contrast can be achieved by using complementary colours or a positive and negative space. Emphasis is when the artist highlights a part of the composition which immediately attracts the viewer’s interest. Movement refers to the use of elements which appear in a movement to the viewer's eye. Pattern consists of the repetition of any elements of art. Rhythm is the repetition of elements in a non-uniform but organised way. Unity means that all the elements fit together without creating monotony.
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